OBOR - logo

China’s ambitious dream confronting realty check – OBOR

China's ambitious dream confronting realty check

China’s prominent political leader of the People’s Republic of Communist China, Xi Jinping, has pronounced to create One Belt One Road (OBOR) in the year 2013. Later in the year 2016, the One Belt One Road project was renamed as Belt and Road initiative as it was misinterpreted.  The Belt refers to the Silk Road Economic Belt while the Road refers to the Maritime Silk Road. He raised an initiative of building Silk Road Economic Belt which connects China through Central Asia, West Asia, the Middle East to Europe. He also called in another joint project named as 21st Century Maritime Silk Road which would be connecting the water bodies; The South China Sea, the South Pacific Ocean, and the Indian Ocean.

OBOR - logo


The prime motive of China’s Belt and Road project is to build the infrastructure and economic connectivity. On the surface, it reveals that China has planned for productively utilize its huge savings in the global market. China is expected to invest up to $1.3 trillion in this project which will link China to Western Europe via both land-based and naval network. The Silk Road Economic Belt would track through Central Asia, Iran, Turkey and Eastern Europe. The Maritime Silk Road would route through South East Asia, South Asia, Africa, and the Mediterranean. Thus, both the roads would terminate in Europe. By creating such a network would provide China’s expansion in overseas labour markets and as well as reduce its cost of the export transaction.

OBOR - Route Map

Divisive Factors

  • China has kept an imbalance in its previous record of delivering its projects at home as well as abroad. According to the researchers; Atif Ansar, Alexander Budzier Bent Flyvbjerg, and Daniel Lunn of Oxford University have surveyed the data of various China projects, wherein they found that most of them were overrun by expenditure, unethically managed as well as there were fewer returns for the investors.
  • Most of the China’s Overseas Projects ventures the geopolitical value, rather its economic importance. China’s railway project in Laos and its infrastructure in power plants in Botswana were delivered incompetently. According to the study, the developing countries like Pakistan, Nigeria, Brazil should not be certain of the use of the strategy of huge funds being invested by China in its global infrastructural investments.
  • Kenya’s railway project which connects Mombasa to Nairobi is one of the biggest infrastructure investment since its independence 1963. Exim Bank of China has invested around 90% of the money and the rest 10% has been added by Kenya government. The Economist Intelligence Unit research reveals that the amount funded for the Standard Gauge Railway cost $5.6million per km, which is believed to be three times the International Standard and four times the Original Estimate. China doesn’t always provide the best value to its associating countries.
  • OBOR (One Belt One Road) would require excessive funding in construction, infrastructure, telecommunication, energy widening from China via Asia to Europe. According to the Fitch ratings, Chinese banks are claimed to be inefficient in allocating resources for the infrastructure at its home. Additionally, Chinese engineering and technology are unfamiliar with fluctuation in market forces subjecting to heavy risks in the execution of the project.
  • Previously China had planned for Bangladesh-China-India-Myanmar Economic Corridor but later it was wrapped to form One Belt One Road initiative. Moreover, India has not received any proposal for the Project from China. India is concerned over China’s intention upon geopolitics as it is a matter of dispute creating a route through Kashmir to Pakistan.
  • Much of the China’s Overseas Projects are claimed to be partnering countries who are debt-ridden which might risk in their repayment. Owing to China’s own indebtedness, project estimation of $trillion would be a huge risk.

OBOR - route

An Upshot of Chinese Overseas Projects in selected countries

China has been lending billions to the Africans since decades. China has lent the African Nations for building bridges, roads, stadiums which in return they are given resources like oil, timber and nickel. African countries provide China with the opportunity for the huge economic boom.

OBOR - Kenya's Gauge Railway

OBOR - Ethiopian Railway

OBOR - Djibouti

  • Kenya’s Railway Project undertaken by China was funded around $5.6 million per kilometre, which was claimed to be three times the International Standard and four times the Original Estimate.
  • Ethiopia, one of the poorest country, has availed China’s funds for Addis Ababa-Red sea railway project.
  • In Djibouti, China has created a new military base on its western port.
  • Sri Lanka owes China more than $8billion as it is the largest lender and trading, partner. China’s “Belt and Road Initiative” has sought out to revive its trading and geopolitical relations with Colombo. The Hambantota port is located just approximately 100miles away from Colombo. This port is regarded as the busiest trade courses which connect Europe and Asia.
  • In Latin America, Venezuela is indebted with $65 billion to China. Though Venezuela is under a deep recession yet China has been providing loans for their sustenance. Thus, it is a matter of concern whether an economically unstable country like Venezuela could repay its loans to China.
Ghost ship

The Mysterious Journey of Ghost Ships

The Mysterious Journey of Ghost Ships

We do have an eerie feeling when we learn about ghosts, phantoms etc. It might give a sudden chill to learn about such spooky places. Here we are going to discuss Ghost Ships.

Ghost ship

Ghost ships are not merely ghost ships but are the ships which are sailing without any living crew aboard. It means it looks like a haunted ship sailing in the sea alone. It is absolutely spooky to see it drifting for months and years together. There are many lost ships found drifted along with the wind and some are reported.

Let us have a quick look at some historical evidence of such Ghost Ships.

The Sayo

On 25th February 2016, a battered yacht, Sayo, was spotted floating at the coast of Philippines in the Pacific Ocean by two local fishermen. The main cabin was sunk under water and the food, clothes etc were scattered. The most mysterious thing found was a mummified body. It was the dead body of German sailor, Manfred Fritz Bajorat, who was seated on desk seeming to reach for radio. The autopsy said he had suffered a heart attack a week ago and the body was mummified due to ocean dry salt winds. He had gone missing since 2009 to 2015.

Sayo - Ghost ship

High Aim-6

The vessel High Aim-6 was found in the year January 2003, drifting in the waters of Australian Exclusive Economic zone, without a crew. This ship had left its port Liuchiu, South of Taiwan in October 2002. There was no apparent reason for abandoning the ship. There were no signs of foul activities found. The ship had fuel, provisions and even when the ship was sighted, the motor was working. It is literally mysterious to know that the ship was sailing without denizens and no signs of their whereabouts. Thorough investigations proved that there were seven toothbrushes revealing seven crew members aboard.

 High Aim 6 - Ghost ship


Baychimo is also named as “The Ghost ship of Arctic”. She was abandoned in the year 1931 by the crew members for a short period as it was trapped in the ice. The crew members had sheltered about 2km away from the ship. But the next day Ship was nowhere to be seen. It was found 72 km away from the shore. Few of the crew were retrieved by the aircraft while the rest stayed back.  The crewmen tracked the Ship and vacated the cargo containing fur from the ship and transported by air. There are many sightings of the ship since then. People have been found alighting the ship but to our dismay, they could not traverse further which might be due to bad weather or lack of capacity to sail. She was often found in frozen condition. She was last seen in ice pack form in 1969. Currently, the ship is nowhere to be tracked. In 2006, the Alaskan government has deployed few to solve the mystery of Baychimo, whether it is still afloat or sunk.

Baychimo - Ghost ship

Mary Celeste

It is one of the most famous ghost ships ever existed. On 7th  November 1872, Benjamin Briggs, the captain of Mary Celeste ship along with his wife and little daughter, had set to sail from New York to Genoa via the Atlantic Ocean.  There were 8 crews in the ship. Unfortunately, the ship could not reach the destination. The ship was found, without any inhabitants and a lifeboat, but there was ample amount of provisions aboard. Moreover, the ship showed no signs of damage or malfunctions or any fight. The cargo containing denatured alcohol was also undisturbed. It is still a mystery how the ship was abandoned.

Mary Celeste - Ghost Ship

Sea Bird

Sea Bird was another 1750 ghost ship, which was found grounded on the shores of Rhode Island. Primarily it was owned by Isaac Steel. On investigation, it was found that there were no crew members aboard. Even there was boiling coffee on the stove as well as breakfast laid on the table. Moreover, there were no signs of any sort of mishap or violence. One of the weirdest things was that when the investigators boarded the vessel there was a dog and a cat which greeted them happily. Ship’s emergency boat was also nowhere to be seen. Until this day there is no news of the whereabouts of the crew.

Sea Bird - Ghost ship

Android Vs iOS

Android Vs iOS


Android is an open source mobile operating system developed by Google, It is a based on Linux kernel. It used in smartphones, tablet, television, auto, wear etc. Android was first developed by Android Inc in October 2003 which was bought by Google in 2005. Its initial release was on September 23, 2008, and it is available in 100+ languages. At present Android have the major market share than any other operating system. Nexus is the flagship product of Google where all the latest updates will be available first.


iOS is a mobile operating system developed by Apple Inc. It supports only for its hardware and it’s a closed operating system. This operating system is used for the iPhone, iPad, iPod Touch. iOS is the second most popular mobile operating system. It was first released on June 29, 2007. It’s available in 40 languages.

Difference between Android and iOS


Android is developed by Google

iOS is developed by Apple

Source Code

Android is  open source code

iOS is closed source code


In Android almost very thing is customisable

In iOS customization is limited

App Store

Android app store is known as Play store

iOS app store is known as Apple app store

File Manager

In Android file manager is easy

In iOS file manager is not available.

Battery Life

Android has a better battery life than iOS

Third-party app store

Android support third-party app store but iOS doesn’t


iOS has a better security than Android


Android support widgets but iOS doesn’t


Android comes with few prebuilt apps from googles like hangout, chrome, maps, and googles now

iOS comes with prebuilt apps like iMessage, FaceTime, Siri, Mobile Safari, and Apple Maps.


Android device is cost effective but iOS is costly


In Android update are often delayed due to the each company using different customised version of the operating system

In iOS we will get timely updates for the device and also for the older ones, because of this security fixes are also updated. 

Addiction to Dangerous Online Games

Addiction to Dangerous Online Games

Addiction to online game is a sort of obsession to an excessive usage of playing computer games creating an unhealthy trauma. With every progressive approach to Future technology, we are prone to many side effects. In this high-tech world, people prefer to be in their closed circuit with none around except technology. Thereby unlike the older times, people spend the most of the time playing online games rather outdoor ones. Though the games might increase the concentration and aptitude level yet it hampers the social thinking and creates much aloofness from their surroundings. This sort of addiction has terrifically increased recent times. Moreover, the game developers create a variety of games for alluring these people. The due course of time has motivated many psychopaths to develop such games where self-harming is the main concern.

In recent times, there has been an alarming increase in such games. One of the most prominent infamous games is The Blue Whale Challenge which has ended up in many suicide attempts lately. In this article, we would discuss various sorts of online dangerous games; the reason for the addiction; consequences and treatment.

Various Dangerous Online Games

The Blue Whale Challenge

The recent probe on the Blue Whale game has been on highlights. The word Blue whale has been used to symbolize the beached whales (the whales who commit suicide). The game is initially created by an expelled psychology student in Russia, Philipp Burdekin. He aimed to clean the society of people who seemed to be of no value.

This game is created for the participants to face the challenges given by the administrators. The challenges are usually the self-maiming of 50 levels of which the final level is the suicide of the participant. The various stages are the various techniques of harming themselves like the participants need to climb the crane, standing on the top of the bridge or the roof, carving the certain figures on the body parts, listening o bizarre music or watching weird videos sent by the administrator. Of the late, there have been numerous reports of suicides in various parts of the world.


Choking Game

The Choking game or the pass out challenge is another type of dangerous pass time which involves activity which stops the blood flow to the brain and then releases pressure thereby creating euphoria or temporary breathlessness.

 This is merely a fainting game where the doctors have stated that the pleasure derived out of this risky game was much more than drug addiction. This disturbing practice can lead to death, epileptic fit, coma or loss of memory.  The most frightening part is that the teens have started uploading the instructional videos to spread in a wider extent. This game has been on highlight since 1995 till this date. It was reported in U.S Centres for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC) that there was a death record of 82 young teens of the age between 6 to 19 in the years between 1995 to 2007.


Salt and Ice Challenge

This challenge another self-mutilation technique applied by rubbing salt over the bare skin and putting a cube of ice upon it.  The combination of ice and the salt reduces the temperature much lower to -18˚C, leaving a scar on the skin. The participants need to bear the burning sensation for a longer duration. This causes a burnt skin or the frostbite.

On July 8th, 2006, the first video on the demonstration was uploaded. When it was shared on eBaum’s World, it gained around 5 million views by 2013. Its popularity moved in steady pace spreading from the United States to European countries like UK, Germany, Poland, France. The recorded age group of 6 to 24years are the victims of this strange challenge.


The Fire Challenge

In this challenge, the teens literally set themselves on fire by applying flammable liquids on the bare upper part of the torso. Thereafter, they upload the recorded video of the entire scenario in the social networking sites. It’s an absolutely dreadful situation. The victims are found facing second-degree burns, even they inhale the fiery air which would damage the lungs as well.

According to one of the survey report, around 50 videos of the self-ablaze videos were uploaded. Out of which around 60% were of the age between 30years to 50 years, rest 40% were under 20years. It is frightening to see the victims are self-inflicting the flame just for a fun without thinking of the outcome.


The Cutting Challenge

It is another type of horrendous challenge where these teens upload the pictures and videos of self-disfigurement or self-mutilation by cuts etc. on the social media. They seem to boast in the social media to show their tolerance of their pain.

The numbers of the victims are increasing every day which depicts the pleasure derived in such heinous work. Drastic steps should be taken to stop such self-harming games.


What motivates the teens to play these games?

The teenagers are the upcoming generation who more involved in the virtual world rather real world. Those who are much into the turmoil of emotional stress they try to express out their hidden emotions by involving into such unethical games. Some feel that their identity is lost so the only means to get their position is by performing such dangerous games. Some of those are loners who are more susceptible to such challenge. We do find that most of them are a sort of attention seekers who want to grab others attention towards them performing such horrible activities.


What steps should be taken to stop them to engage in such dangerous games?

Strict cybersecurity measures should be enforced which could stop such hazardous games. Parents and guardians should have a keen approach towards their children. They should monitor the kids at regular times. They ought to communicate with their children in order to know their fluctuating emotions. According to certain psychologists, excessive computer gaming might result into a grave mental disorder which is categorized under Compulsive Behaviour Similar to Gambling Addiction. Therefore, such addiction requires the systematic intervention of their parents or guardian to understand them.



Goods and Service Tax (GST) is an indirect tax levied by the government at the state and central upon the consumer.

Goods and Service Tax in India

The One Hundred and First Amendment Act 2016 of the Constitution in India or 122 Amendment Bill as per the Constitution of India has implemented on July 1st, 2017, named as the Goods and Service Act. It is precisely written that the taxes would be following the rates of 0%, 5%, 12%, 18% and 28%. The GST is administered by GST council and Finance Minister of India.

GST a Game Changer

  • GST is one tax system which will remove the prevailing taxes and duties which includes the service tax; central excise duty; value-added tax.
  • It will help in reducing the massive power vested in several Indian middlemen at the state borders; liberating internal trade as well as making an ease for doing business and widen the tax base.
  • India boasts to be the fastest growing economy. According to financial architects of the reform, it will strengthen efficiency and growth of creating a common market system.
  • India would follow the four brackets of the tax rate viz. 5%; 12%; 18%; 28%, unlike other countries who follow single flat rate.
  • In India, most of the states act as different countries due to the different tax levied. Therefore, the small factories and warehouses take advantage of such tax breaks. GST would reduce such disparity of tax allotted at various sections.
  • Widening of the Tax net in the economy would definitely pressure the companies to be in the Tax system to claim their credit against the costs.
  • Just as in case of the recent Demonetization, the initial ruffles in the economic activity will be on the implementing GST will be short-lived, but would have long-term benefits.

Goods and Services which are placed in the Tax Slab



In the tax slab of 5%


Fish Fillet, Clothing below Rs 1000, Packaged Food, Footwear below Rs 500, Cream, Skimmed Milk Powder, Branded Cottage Cheese, Frozen Vegetables, Coffee, Tea, Spices, Pizza Bread, Rusk, Sago, Kerosene, Coal, Medicines, Stent, Lifeboats, Cashew Nut, Raisin, Ice and Snow, Bio Gas, Insulin, Incense Sticks, Kites, Postage Or Revenue Stamps, Stamp-Post Marks, First-Day Covers, Branded Food, Walnuts, Dried Tamarind, Roasted Gram, Corduroy Fabric Paper Mache Items, Oil Cakes, Duty Credit Scrips, Cotton Quilts(Quilts Not Exceeding Rs 1000 Per Piece),Corals ,Rosaries And Prayer Beads, ,Grass, Leaf and Reed and Fibre Products, Including Mats, Pouches, Wallets.


Transport services i.e. Railways, Air Transportation, Small Restaurants as well as Textile job work

In the tax slab of 12%


Clothing above Rs 1000, Frozen Meat Products , Butter, Cheese, Ghee, Dry Fruits In Packaged Form, Animal Fat, Sausage, Fruit Juices, , Ayurvedic Medicines, Tooth Powder, Colouring Books, Picture Books, Umbrella, Sewing Machine, Mobile Phones, Ketchup , Sauces, All Diagnostic Kits And Reagents, Exercise Books And Note Books, Spoons, Forks, Ladles, Skimmers, Cake Servers, Fish Knives, Tongs, Spectacles, Playing Cards, Chess Board, Carom Board And Other Board Games, Wood, Stone, Metals, Marble Idols, Table And Kitchenware, Batters, Including Idli / Dosa Batter, Textile Caps, Sprinklers, Cotton Quilts Exceeding Rs 1000 Per Piece, Statues, Statuettes, Pedestals ,Ceramic Articles, Porcelain Items, Ornamental Articles, Bells, Gongs, Non-Electric Of Base Metal, Animal Carving Material.


State-run lotteries, Non-AC hotels, business class air ticket, fertilizers. 

In the tax slab of 18%


Footwear Costing More Than Rs 500, Trademarks, Goodwill, Software, Bidi Leaf, Biscuits, Flavoured Refined Sugar, Pasta, Cornflakes, Pastries And Cakes, Preserved Vegetables, Jams, Sauces, Soups, Ice Cream, Instant Food Mixes, Mineral Water, Tissues, Envelopes, Tampons, Note Books, Steel Products, Printed Circuits, Camera, Speakers, Headgear, Aluminium Foil, Weighing Machinery, Printers, Electrical Transformer, CCTV, Optical Fiber, Bamboo Furniture, Swimming Pools And Padding Pools, Curry Paste; Mayonnaise And Salad Dressings; Mixed Condiments And Mixed Seasonings, Tractor Parts, Raincoats, Medical Grade Disposable Gloves, Computer Monitors(Up To 20 Inch), Custard Powder, Kitchen Gas Lighters. 


AC hotels that serve liquor of room tariffs between Rs 2,500 and Rs 7,500, Telecom services, IT services, Branded garments and Financial services,

In the tax slab of 28%


All types of Bidis, Chewing gum, Molasses, Chocolate without Cocoa, Aerated Water and other Drinks, Paint, various Deodorants, Shaving Creams, After Shave, Hair Shampoo, Dye, Sunscreen, Wallpaper, Ceramic Tiles, Water Heater, Dishwasher, Weighing Machine, Washing Machine, ATM Vending Machines, Vacuum Cleaner, Shavers, Automobiles, Motorcycles, Aircraft used for Personal Use


Private-run Lotteries, Hotels of Room Tariffs Above Rs 7,500, 5-Star Hotels, Race Club Betting, Movies

Goods and Service tax in Various countries

  • In the year 1954, France was the first country to introduce GST. It was introduced as there were high sales taxes which had intervened an increase in smuggling and cheating.
  • In the year 1989, Japan had introduced GST with consumption tax at the rate of 3% which has increased to 10% in the year 2012.
  • In the year 1986, New Zealand was introduced initially at the rate of 10% later it has increased to 15% by 2010
  • Like India, Canada also had introduced dual GST (State and Central GST) in the year 1991.
  • Singapore had introduced GST in 1994 which eased inflation spikes.
  • In the year 2000, Australia introduced smooth GST at the rate of 10% initially with a current proposal to increase to 15%.
  • Malaysia also introduced GST in the year 2015 after a long 26 years of debate.
  • Few other countries have VAT (Value Added Tax) instead of GST.
  • United States is the only economy who didn’t introduce GST instead enjoy high autonomy taxation.
Android Emulator

Android Emulator

Android Emulator

Android Emulator

What is an emulator?

An emulator is a hardware or software that enables one computer system to act like another system. Emulation is referred to as ability of one system be it hardware or software to imitate or emulate another program or the device.

We can take the example of a 3270 emulator, it can communicate and control the personal computer as if it were 3270 workstations.

Android Emulator

In Android SDK there is a virtual device called the emulator that runs on the computer and this emulator helps to prototype, develop and test Android applications without using a physical device. Android emulator is also known as Android Virtual Device (AVD). In this AVD you can specify the configuration of a real device and test it in the emulator before it is deployed to the real device. First, we need to launch this emulator with the configuration of the real device from the AVD manager.

The default orientation of the Android emulator is vertical but we can change the orientation by pressing Ctl+F11 from the keyboard. We can do a lot of operations in the emulator like how we are doing in a real device like ringing volume up or down, search, end call, sending SMS etc.

This emulator can be used in the simulation of Android phones, tablets, watches, and TV. We can have any number of emulator and all the emulator can be managed from one place through AVD manager. The Android SDK comes with an inbuilt option to create emulator but there are other emulators that can be used instead of this in-built emulator.

Some of them are:

  • Andy
  • Bluestacks
  • Droid4X
  • Genymotion
  • KoPlayer
  • Manymo
  • MEmu

Above are the some of the emulators available in the market. In that few of them are free and rest are paid. All Android devices come with Google’s emulator in the Android bundle.

These emulators are really handy because before deploying to the real system we can check out and do corrections wherever necessary. Another great advantage is that if you don’t have any particular real device to test you can use this emulator to check it out how it will function.

Blade server

Blade Server

Blade Server


A server layout which casing multiple server units in a single chassis or enclosure. The architectural design allows the blade cards to hold a number of blade servers. Blade servers are an innovative technology in enterprise applications. The chassis provides the power supply, Cooling, connectivity, and storage. The blades are either rack mounted or self-standing. Each blade server is a whole computer device or service device which contain only the major components which include CPU, RAM, Network connection, and Storage. Blade server has an option for additional power supplies in case of any failure happens.

The growing need in the field of datacenter and the requirement to increase the server availability and its performance form the base for the evolution of Blade Server. The main ideology behind blade server is to provide high performance with low space, low power, and cost saving. Traditional rack mount and tower servers are utilizing enormous space and result in an increase of physical plant size for datacentres.

            IBM and Intel partnership together and developed the blade server technology in the beginning of 21st century. IBM has made the specification and configurations for Blade servers open so that any manufacturers can develop the blade server. Blade.org a website was established as part of the industry community led by IBM in 2006. The mission of the industry community is to accelerate the growth and to adopt the technology.

Blade Server Technology

Blade server

            Blade servers are designed for high packing of components in an enclosure, they are self-reliant computer servers. Traditional rack mount servers occupy huge space and exist with a network cable and power card. Many components are removed in the blade server, but still, it functions as same as a computer. The Blade chassis controls following functions such as power, cooling, networking, various interconnects and management. The main function of the computer is to perform the following functions,

  1. Read the command and data,
  2. Manipulating the data as per the command,
  3. Storing the results in the memory.

In contrast to the general purpose of the computer, it is implemented along with DC power which produces heat, other components power supplies, hard drives, keyboard, mouse, storage, network connections & serial ports. They all supporting the basic function of the computer in addition to that it adds enormous heat and complexity which requires continuous maintenance and chance of failure of components.

In Blade technology, many of the components are removed. The function of the components are supported by the following

  1. Chassis (Blade Enclosure) – DC power supply
  2. Virtualized - iSCSI storage, remote console over IP.

The serial ports are discarded entirely in the blade technology. It becomes simple and cheap for manufacturers.

Datacentres management are greatly simplified by blade server technology which improves server density, Power reduction, easy server expansion and cooling costs. Blade servers are not the traditional method of packaging the components like normal computers. It’s a State- of- art technology which delivers high performance and low maintenance. The major hardware and software components are listed below



  1. Blade Chassis (Blade enclosure) – Casing with an integrated power which housing server blades, communication blades, connections with peripherals and internal chassis link.
  2. Server Blades – They are high power computer engines which comprise of 1 to 4 processors and memory
  3. Communication Blades – These blades are integrated with Ethernet, InfiniBand, Communication adapters and switches.
  4. Power and cooling system – Centralized system which provides power supply to Blade chassis and cooling component system.
  5. Storage system – Storage device can be either mounted on the chassis blade or outside the chassis. It could be tape storage or disk storage. Disk- less storage device also available. They could boot from external storage through SAN (Storage Area Network). This simplifies storage space management.


  1. Software Management Tools – Management software tools enable the administrator to monitor and control the server resources. To deploy in case of any upgradations.
  2. Virtualization software – It will reduce the physical resources as needed by the application. This software enables maximum usage virtually by creating virtual server configuration which will reduce the physical resources.

Blade Chassis

Chassis will present in all computers, blade chassis will perform many computing services which normal computer chassis failed to do. Non-blade computers are hot, bulky and space inefficient. They will not perform at its capacity when sharing between computers. In the case of Blade chassis, all services are in the same place and distribution between the computers are effective.


            DC voltage is required for operating computers, but power delivered from the source is AC which is more than the actual power required within the computer. Converting AC to DC PSUs (Power Supply Units) are required. Failure of one power supply will affect the operations of the computer. To ensure that failure will not affect the operations redundant power supply is needed. Which occupies the space and adding heat to the system.

            In Blade chassis, a single blade will provide power to all blades within the enclosure. The single source of the power supply can either be in the enclosure itself or through separate PSU supplying power to multiple blade chassis. In case of any PSU failure, blade chassis will regulate the individual blade server performance and continues till it matches with the regular power.


During any actions or process, heat is generated by mechanical or electrical components. Heat must be exiled immediately to ensure the smooth operation of the system. As in most computers, heat in blade enclosure also exhausted by fans. Most of the high performance computer system failed due to underestimating the heat generated by the system and capacity of the fan to remove the heat. The main advantage of the blade enclosure is it has control logic that tunes the cooling system as per the system requirement automatically. Blade enclosure provided with high capacity and adjustable fans.

            The shared power in the blade servers does not produce heat as much as traditional servers. In the meantime increase in the concentration of blade server structure will increase the demand for cooling more compared to traditional servers. In simple terms, fully occupied blade server requires more cooling than the fully occupied traditional servers.


In today’s world, data transfer becomes more important. All companies require the data’s to be transferred as fast as possible. They using different media (Copper and fibre) to transfer the data. Additional engineering is required in design and manufacturer of the blade. It should be high in capacity and occupies less space. Traditional servers require more caballing and consume more spacing. The high-speed network requires expensive and ultra-speed integrated circuit and media.

blade server 2

            The blade chassis comes with one or more network buses to which the blade will connect and the ports in available in the single location. Multiple blades are connected to single chassis. This will reduce the cable cost and aggregate them to fewer ports. These may either present in the chassis itself or in networking blades.


            For a computer to function operating system is required for the hard disk. Other data, applications are not required to be available on the hard disk itself. It can be stored outside the server through any storage methods like Fire Wire, SCSI, and SATA etc. Storage in Blade servers can be removed and placed in a blade enclosure. So that it can be shared with other blades also. The blade servers have the ability to boot from external storage through SAN (Storage Area Network). This may have better reliability than systems having individual disks on each blade. This makes the blades disk free.


            Connectivity in blade servers is always limited. Only Ethernet ports are available to connect to the chassis. Though the other connectivity VGA and USB are present; they are only limited to monitor connections, other I/O devices mouse and keyboard. There may be more than one switch unit in the chassis it will be used as alternate in case of any failure happens in a single network or connection to multiple networks.

 Hot Swapping

            Hot swapping is one of the unique features in blade server chassis. Without turning off the chassis, new units can be added, existing units can be replaced or removed. It can be applicable to PSUs, storage, blade servers & network. If hot swapping coupled with additional PSU will give significant gain. For example, if one PSU went down, the other can take care and maintain the system without affecting the operations.

Future Scope

            Today companies started moving from their traditional rack mounted server to Blade server. All manufacturers are working on the next generation Blade servers. Sales report by all the Blade server manufacturers is in positive trend only. To drive the business more efficiently growth of the social network, mobile and cloud blade server needs a new approach in process engine, data center and also optimization of servers for the cloud, convergence, big data, and evolving Softwares. HP already line up with ninth generation (Gen9) servers. The main aim is to reduce the cost and complexity. It is predicted that by 2019, the Blade server market is about $15.8 billion. Technavio’s market research predicted the steady growth of Blade server market till 2021.


            For making the business profitable and reliable Blade servers definitely serves the purpose. Blade servers high server performance reduce the complexity and maintenance cost and deployment is simplified which do not require any system shut down. Reduce in infrastructure costs. It can host thousands of applications supported by Windows, Linux and more. Overall Blade Servers will increase the efficiency of datacentre performance.






Glass is really fascinating because it is strong enough to protect us, yet fragile enough to break so easily. It is made from the opaque sand yet it is transparent. We all know glass as a solid material,  but in actual it is frozen liquid or amorphous solid. We cannot think of a world without the glass because it has that much important in today’s life.


The man has used glass for many centuries now. Historians have discovered that first use of the glass by men was Obsidian – a natural glass formed as a result of volcanic eruptions which melted the sand, which was used by men on the tip of the spear. Archaeologists have found the evidence of man-made glass in 4000 BC, but it was in 1500 BC, the production of hollow glass container started. In 1st century BC onwards it was made by blowing, but it was highly colored due to impurities contain in the raw material.  But from the first century AD onwards colorless glass was made, if the color was needed, they would add the coloring agent.

Through the years glass manufacturing has gone many changes. Now it has become fully automated and can make a  whole lot of glass within a short time.


The following steps are included in the manufacturing of glass:

  1. The raw materials like limestone, sand and soda ash are put in the tank furnace, which is very hot at a temperature of about 1500 degree Celsius. The tank is shallow at one end and deeper at the other end.
  2. The raw material will start to move slowly towards the deep end. Silica will melt only at a very high temperature in order to reduce the temperature soda ash is added, which will reduce the cost by saving the energy.
  3. The glass will become insoluble in water because of the presence of limestone.
  4. The raw material melts inside the furnace and a clear jelly like substance is formed, which can be used to get the desired shape and size of the glass.

The above mentioned steps show the general way of preparing the glass, but other raw materials are added as per the desired glass are required.

Manufacturing process of Glass

Manufacturing process of Glass

In general glass, manufacturing can be further subdivided into a Continuous and Batch process.

Continuous Process: In this process, raw materials are continuously added in the furnace from one end and the molten glass is removed from the other end. During this glass will passes through a different process in the furnace. It’s used for the preparation of high volume products like food and beverage containers, architectural glass etc.

Batch Process: All the raw materials are added at one time in the furnace and once it is melted, a portion of it removed and made into the desired product. This step is repeated until the vessel becomes empty of molten glass which ends one batch. This process helps to scale up or down the production as per the requirement. It’s mainly used for the small to medium scale production of aircraft lighting glass, custom molded glass for industry and signal application etc.


Nowadays we use glass in almost everything. We can find it in many different shapes, size, density etc., in short, we can find in different chemical and physical properties. Let’s look into the different type of glass.

Soda glass or soda-lime glass:

This is prepared by heating sodium carbonate and silica and it is the most commonly used variety. It’s used in window panes, tableware, bottle and bulbs.

 Colored glass: 

Depending upon the color needed the desired metallic oxide are added to the hot molten mixture of sand, sodium carbonate and limestone to get the different color to the glass. It’s used for decorating walls,  making sunglasses, for the making of light signals for automobiles, train and aeroplanes

Plate glass:

It is made by floating a layer of molten glass over a layer of molten tin. It has got a smooth surface and is thicker than ordinary glass. This type used for the shop windows and doors.

Safety glass:

This type of glass is also known as shatterproof glass and it is made by placing a sheet of plastic such as celluloid between a sheet of glass. It is used in automobiles.

Laminated glass:

In this type, several layers of safety glass are bound together with a transparent adhesive as the layer increase the strength of the glass will be more. It is also known as bulletproof glass.

Optical glass:

It is used in the manufacturing of the lens, prism and other optical instruments. It is softer than other glasses and  is clear, transparent. It is also known as flint glass. This optical glass is made by adding potassium and lead silicate.

Pyre glass:

It is highly resistant to heat because some of the silica is replaced by boron oxide, which expands very little on high heating, so it has a high melting point and resistant to many chemicals because of this it is used in the laboratory equipment and ovenware. It is also called as borosilicate glass.

Photo-chromatic glass:

In this glass, silver iodine is added so that the glass acquire the darker shade when exposing to brighter light and returns to original lighter shade in dim light.

Lead crystal glass:

This glass has a high refractive index with a maximum brilliance because the lead oxide is used to increase the refractive index, so has the maximum brilliance. It sparkles and its used for high-quality art object and expensive glassware. It is also called the Cut glasses because the surface is cut into decorative patterns to reflect light.


The glass is 100% recyclable and can be recycled infinite time without degrading its quality. So in order to save our environment from plastic pollution, we should pledge ourselves in using the glass products instead of plastic wherever possible.


Raging Waves and Roaring Storms

Raging Waves and Roaring Storms


Approximately 71% of the earth is water and rest 29% is land. The deep and vast oceans shroud the earth. With the slightest change in weather would turn the calm waters to catastrophe. According to the oceanographers, there are various types of storms whirling in the oceans. Those extreme storms in Indian Oceans and South of Pacific Ocean are called CYCLONES. TYPHOONS are the storms formed in North Western part of Pacific Ocean. HURRICANES are the storms formed in the Atlantic Ocean as well as Eastern Pacific Ocean.


Generally, a cyclonic storm is produced due to the low pressure formed in the Indian Ocean and south of Pacific Ocean. Eye of the storm or the center of the storm contains the lowest pressure. The difference in the distribution of the pressure creates the whirling effect of the force. There are 2 major forces which tend to form the cyclone.

1)Coriolis Effect: It is a force produced due to inertia which acts on the object whose motion is at a relative to the rotatory frame. It means the force acts on the left of the object if the motion is clockwise and it acts on the right if the motion is anticlockwise. Thereby in cyclones, the variance in pressure creates an effect wherein the gusts of wind move in the clockwise direction in Northern Hemisphere and anticlockwise in Southern Hemisphere.

2)Pressure Gradient Force: The deficit of high and low pressure creates this force. Therefore near to the center of the cyclonic pathway i.e. eye, the pressure gradient force acts due to the difference in the pressure level.

Usually, tropical cyclones have low-intensity atmospheric pressure with growing air along with vortex of the converging winds. Thus they carry rain-bearing clouds.

The following are the lists of Cyclones which occurred in the Indian Ocean and South Pacific Ocean.




In May 2016, the Cyclonic storm Roanu had affected the states Andhra Pradesh and Odisha of India and even created a landslide in Bangladesh which had emerged from North Indian Ocean. During December 2016, another cyclone named Cyclone Vardah also had emerged from North Indian Ocean which was an extremely severe storm that had almost covered Southern part of India, Thailand, Indonesia, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Malaysia.

The previous year, in July 2016, Cyclone Abela and Cyclone Bransby had evolved from the South-West Indian Ocean. In this year 2nd March 2017, intense tropical Cyclone Enawo had struck Madagascar.

The Warming up of the Pacific Waters i.e. EL Nino had created lots of cyclonic effects in the South Pacific Ocean. The severe impact of the storm had covered the Pacific islands, Africa, South East of Asia and Central America


The storm appears in the Northwestern part of the Pacific Ocean. Such storm engulfs with immense effect around the Northwestern Pacific Basin.

The Warming of sea surface temperature; undulation in the stability of Temperature; peak in troposphere humidity; Low pressure at the center due to Coriolis force; Vertical Wind Gradient are the main causes of the Typhoon.

The following are the list of worst affected Typhoons till this date.


Typhoon Haiyan was the most terrific and most intense typhoon ever affected the Philippines in November 2013, killing about 7000 people. The previous year, 2012, Philippines had to experience the wrath of the storm, Typhoon Bopha causing a huge destruction of the island.


The hurricane is another form of tropical cyclone usually found in the Atlantic Ocean. Storms develop when there is a difference in air temperature from one region to another region. Warm air thereby rises and the cool air descends.  Therefore this creates a pressure difference.

Saffir=Simpson Hurricane scale measures the intensity of storms on the basis of the speed of the wind. The scale has categorized the Hurricane into five. The category one is mildest of hurricanes having wind speed 120-150km/hr. The category two is the hurricane of wind speed of close to 180km/hr. The wind speed between 180km/hr and 250km/hr comes under category three and category four. The wind speed more than 250km/hr is the most dangerous and named as category five.

The following are the List of Hurricanes which affected till this date


Hurricane Katrina in the year 2005, was the most intense storm which changed its wind speed very quickly i.e. from category 3 to category 5. It whirled around the Bahamas initially later headed towards the Gulf of Mexico affecting in a larger and powerful scale.

Hurricane Irene in the year 2011, was another destructive storm which affected the Caribbean and the Eastern Coast of United States. This storm initiated in category one later spat its fury after a landfall into category 3.

The Great Hurricane of 1780 was the most devastated and deadliest hurricane ever recorded to date. It had struck the Barbados, Lesser Antilles with a wind speed more than 320km/hr. Thus there was a huge death toll which counted to approximately 22000 people.

Need To Know!!!

** Scientists say that most of the storms evolve due to drastic increase global warming. Thus the speed of the wind also tends to increase thereby drop in pressure causes the after effect in the form of a storm. Scientists also say that every year wind speed increases by 2%. This increase is terribly devastating.

**Naming of Storms: mid-1900s- Before 1900 the storms were given names of men. Lamid-1900s, they introduced female names. Thereafter the meteorologist decided to have specified and organized the way of naming the storm. The names of the storm in particular season begins with A. The second storm name will begin with B and so on. The names allotted in a particular season would not be repeated for six years.

 In the following table, we find the List of Tropical Cyclone Names. The List of names suggested in 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 repeats after six years i.e. 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 respectively.  The list of 2012 and 2013 would be repeated in 2018, 2019 respectively.

List of Tropical Cyclone Names

blog post vs page

Difference between Post Vs Page

Difference between Post Vs Page


blog post vs page

As a  newbie, we usually find it difficult to differentiate between a blog post and a page. The reason for it is, it looks similar so the fresher will get confused, but when we take a closer look we will come to know they are different. So we will get confused as to what to use, whether a blog or post. It is better to understand the difference between the two first. So that we will be in a better position to decide which of the two needs to be created thereby reduces confusion in future.


The blog is also a type of website. It is originated from Web log (Web log =blog).  It will be updated on a regular basis. The crawler will be crawling it more frequently than a website. A blog can be used within a website to enhance it further. The post will usually be more informal and will be using simple language so as to make the viewpoint clearer to the people who are reading it.  Nowadays days creating a blog has become very easy because of the WordPress, bloggers etc.

The blog will appear in the reverse chronological order, i.e. latest blog post will be appearing first followed by the rest. It also contains the date at which it was posted and the commenting area where people can express their views,  Sometimes it will turn out to be a discussion between people. If the author doesn’t  want anyone to make a comment on his post he can disable it. We can set our preference for each blog separately. We can also group the post by category and tags. The older post gets archived in the monthly and yearly basis. Post also gets syndicated through RSS feeds.


A website is a website, it cannot be a blog. A page can be dynamic or static depending on the purpose of the page. A website can also contain blog post. We should always keep the page as a  homepage we cannot keep a particular post as the homepage. A page also contains subpages,i.e, pages are hierarchical in nature.  We can create each page in a different design. It doesn’t have any time frame. Pages don't  have a comment section.

We can create a very complex website like Google, Facebook etc which contain thousand or million of pages to it. It is not included in the RSS feed.

Post Vs Page

  1. Post is timely, but the page is not
  2. Post can be categorized, page is hierarchical
  3. Post gets included in RSS feed, but the page does not.


“All the Apples are Fruits, but all Fruits are not Apples.

All Blogs are Website, but all Websites are not Blog.”

Drone logo

Drones- Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Drones- Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Drone logo

Currently, it is an era of the Drones which is accepted by most of the developed and developing nations across the world. The Drones are the aircraft's which travel without any pilot aboard. Thus they are termed as Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) or Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS). The movement of these drones is controlled by either the remote controls or autonomous methods by intermittently used or by computers involved inside those.

Structure of UAS or UAV

The entire structure of Drone is divided into six major categories

  1. Elementary
  2. Technicalities
  3. Sensors
  4. Varieties
  5. Propulsion
  6. Video


  • Drones are the unmanned aerial vehicles used generally for military purpose such as surveying the area and locating a particular area.
  • DIY- Do it yourself. Preparing the drone using one’s own skills
  • UAV- Making any design or category of the unmanned aerial vehicles


  • Size usually mapped between the greatest points between 2 motors on the drone.
  • Centre of Gravity marks an important factor. It ensures that the weight is equally distributed on the every part of the drone.
  • Dampners are used to reduce the vibration on the drone.
  • Frame is the skeletal unit providing the support and protection
  • Landing gear which is used to provide a safe landing without destroying the external hardware
  • Propguards help to maintain the propellers and as well as the user(human operator)
  • Shell is the external stylish and prominent appearance which can build a smooth interface


  • Accelerometer is used to determine the linear acceleration
  • Barometer measure the height of the drone with the change in air pressure according to the altitude
  • Gyroscope measures the flight stability of the drone during angular acceleration
  • GPS(Global positioning system) permits the satellites to locate the drone’s position as well as manage the flight of the drone


  • RTF (Ready to Fly) contains the RC (Remote Controlled) quadcopter which is well equipped with all its parts and fixtures necessary for the flight.
  • BNF (Bind and Fly) contains RC quadcopter well equipped but without a transmitter.
  • ATF (Almost Ready To Fly) contains drones which are not well assembled so it needs further parts to maintain its flight.
  • Hexacoter contains 6 propellers.
  • Multirotor contains multiple rotors (rotary wings which help to increase the aerodynamic lifting force).
  • Octocopter contains 8 motors.
  • Quadcopter contains 4 propellers.
  • Tricopter contains 3 motors.


  • ESC(Electronic Speed Controller) which coordinates with the motor, battery and the flight controller and regulates the speed of rotating motors
  • Lithium Polymer is the universal battery for the drone thereby it is light in weight
  • Motors help is rotation of the propellers
  • Printed Circuit Board is a flat fiberglass which has various components soldered
  • Power distribution is done by using power distribution board which splits or shares the power supply to the various parts of the components in the drone.
  • Power Adapter maintains the connectivity between the motors and the propeller


  • FPV(First Person View) helps to view the live feeding which is captured by the camera attached to the drone
  • LCD helps to view the image displayed on the screen
  • Gimble provides a space to hold the camera while the drone is on the flight.
  • GoPro is the sports or action camera which is mounted for a clear vision

Application of the drone in various fields

Aerospace: -

          The civil aviation industry uses Drones for inspection and maintenance of the aircraft at an altitude.

 Military: -

      In the military, Drones are named as UCAV(Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle), carries missiles for air combat. Countries like           China, India, Israel, Italy, Pakistan, United States and Turkey own UCAV’s.

drone fire

China owns the largest number of Drones. Recently at Zhuhai 2016 Airshow, China had exhibited their finest drones ever made.       

China possesses Cloud shadow attack drone (carrying mini drones along with it); CH-5(carrying a payload of 1 ton of ammunitions and sensors; CH-805 Stealth Target DroneCK-20 Supersonic Target Drone would be in force by 2020; SW-6 UAV; CH-500 can carry 2 heavy anti-tank missiles.

India imports approximately 28% of UAV’s from foreign countries. India also develops its UAVs from its two centers viz; Defense Research and Development Organisation, New Delhi and Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, Bangalore. The Active UAVs of India are LAKSHYA( is a High-Speed Target Drone); The Searcher Mk I and II (helps in target orientation, surveillance, weapons adjustment etc); HERON (has a fully automated fourth-generation multi-altitude system); NISHANT(capable for target tracking and localization; surveillance); HARPY( also named fire and forget type of drone as it destroys the set target); India’s latest and future UAVs are RUSTOM- 1 serving Indian Army, Indian Air Force and Indian Navy; GAGAN TACTICAL UAV; NAVAL ROTARY UAV ; SOLAR POWERED UAV ; MINI UAV; SLYBIRD;  NETRA.

 Israel possesses one of the world’s largest numbers of drones. IAI (Israel Aerospace Industries Ltd) manufacture UAVs Malat; Scout; Searcher I and II; Heron; Hunter; Pioneer; Harpy; Ranger. ELBIT(International Defense and Electronics Company) manufactured UAVs Hermes 180; Hermes450; Hermes 900; Hermes 1500; Skylark1 and 2; Aeronautics of Israel manufactured UAVs Aerolight; Aerosky; Aerostar; Dominator; Orbiter; Tail Sitter. EMIT of Israel has manufactured Blue Horizon 2; Sparrow; Butterfly; Dragonfly 2000. Rafael has manufactured Skylite A and B. Top I Vision has created Casper 50

Italy contains Predator and Reaper drones which have an ability to carry weapons along with it. In addition to these Italy also has the best MIRACH series and SELEX series of UAVs which is efficient in reconnaissance and target localization.

 Pakistan is also regarded as one of the major countries of the world which are well equipped with armed as well as unarmed drones. NESCOM(National Engineering and Scientific Commission), Pakistan Aeronautical Complex, GIDS, SATUMA are the companies which manufacture UAVs in Pakistan. UAVs like BURRAQ; SATUMA series; SAAB(from Sweden); SHANXI are the active drones in Pakistan

The United States contains the largest number of drones. The most efficient and prominent UCAVs are RQ-11 RAVENS; AEROVIRONMENT WASP IIIs; AEROVIRONMENT RQ-20 PUMAS; RQ-16 T HAWK; PREDATORS; MQ 1C GREY EAGLES; MQ-9 REAPERS; RQ-7 SHADOWS; RQ-4 GLOBAL HAWK which are predominantly perform surveillance, aerial target localization, artillery equipping , aerial attack, combat research and rescue operations. The terrorist Osama Bin Laden was killed by the help of US UAV Predator which had identified the exact location of his hideout.

Turkey has imported several UAV’s from other countries. The manufacturing of the specified UAV’s are done by Turkish Aerospace Industries. TAI Anka has a good number of UAVs. ANKA –B, ANKA-TP, and ANKA-S are its products.


Drones help in identification of specified area for mining as well as distinctively detect and images the area for land mines. The specified imaging technology proves a helping hand for those detections.


There are various drones which are specifically used to aerial survey for specified purpose like illegal land encroachment, inspecting power lines and communication hubs; the line of control borders; mapping certain areas; pollution assessment; anti-poaching etc. .


Drones are the future of the current generation where people use it for their own recreational use; photography, filming, as well as used aerial videography for various celebrations

Disaster Management

These drones prove to be excellent surveyor when any catastrophe is affecting any particular zone. They map they area provide specifications; aerial reports; rescue management; providing the people at the affected areas with basic necessities by aerial dropping.


UAVs are deployed to spray fertilizers and inspecting farmland when the areas are mapped in hectares. Thus drones help the farmers immensely when they are in a wide stretch of land.

Drone collage

Specified regulatory laws are enforced for using drones in the respective countries whether it is recreational or professional. Thus each and every operator, are forced to follow the rules of their own countries in which they reside.





Chocolate Journey

Chocolate Journey

For all chocolate lovers like me!!!!!!!

I don’t think anyone of us wouldn’t have tasted chocolates. Chocolates are the savored memories of every little celebration. It is the only delicacy which is relished by all age groups whether a little kid or stooping oldies.


Little story of chocolate

The chocolate was born in the 1900 BCE and cherished by the Maya and Aztecs as a beverage; Nahuatl -“bitter water”.

The chocolate comprises of cocoa seeds, which are fermented causing the bitter taste. The seeds are dried, cleaned and roasted immediately after fermentation.

Transformation of Cocoa to Chocolate

Ivory Coast, in West Africa, is the source of the cocoa cultivation with a production contributing two-thirds of major cocoa cultivation, making it one of the largest cocoa producers in the world. Though the chocolate production provides huge employment yet there is a concern prevailing where maximum work is done by child labor.

Following is the process involved in the preparation of our chocolate

  • Harvesting: - Chocolates is formed from cocoa beans. Ripened beans are used for further processing. Usually, cocoa beans are harvested twice in a year, i.e. November to January and May to July. The three varieties of cocoa beans used are Criollo, Forastero and Trinatrio for preparing chocolates.
  • Fermenting: - The pulp of the harvested cocoa pods, are treated with yeast for 5 to 7 days fermentation. Thus, it is spread on fermentation boxes. During the process, the color of bean turns darker from gray to purple, becomes aromatic and flavor improves as well.
  • Drying: -After fermenting the seeds, to subside the water content, the beans are dried in sunlight for the duration of 6 to 14 days. When the seeds completely dry, they are sent to harvest collection centers. Here at these centers, they are packed in sacks or ampules and shipped to various countries for further cocoa processing to form chocolates.
  • Roasting: - Usually dried beans are exported from West Africa, Latin America and Asia. The quality of the dried beans is inspected as well as it is subjected to further cleaning. After cleansing the dirt, the shells of the beans are broken and coco nibs are separated. The beans are roasted in specialized heaters. The temperature maintained is around 210°Fahrenheit for 15 minutes. It enriches the flavor and eases the next step.
  • Winnowing: - In this process the chocolate nibs are easily separated from the shells, by breaking of the shell, as they were roasted.

Chocalate processing

  • Grinding: - With the help of grinding machines, the nibs are ground to fine liquefied mass called as Cocoa liquor. This liquor is the main ingredient of chocolate. Cocoa liquor is further processed into cocoa butter and cocoa powder.

          Depending upon the type of chocolate required the ingredients are added.

          Dark chocolate requires Cocoa liquor, cocoa butter and sugar;

          Milk chocolate requires Cocoa liquor, cocoa butter, sugar and milk powder;

    White chocolate requires Cocoa butter, sugar and milk powder.

  • Conching: - This process involves removing of moisture and further breaking down under a specified temperature. It is kneading procedure which further develops texture and flavor. The flavor depends upon the duration of conching. For the finest chocolates of the world, it might take up to five days.
  • Tempering: - This process involves gradual heating, cooling and again reheating to prevent discoloration and solidification of cocoa butter. Perfect temperature control can provide shiny, solid and stable shapes by pouring into separate moulds.
  • Storage: - Adequate storage temperature will enhance the longevity of chocolate bar. Therefore, it is wrapped and packed well for marketing and distribution to various countries. Thus our chocolate reaches to every hand.

chocalate processing

Chocolates are consumed worldwide in various forms like a chocolate bar, cakes, fudge, brownies, and various desserts. Therefore our chocolate is part of our every little celebration.

Did we know??

  • Our first chocolate was invented by Joseph Fry in 1850.
  • Chocolates trade contributes $50 million of the global market alone.
  • Big chocolate comprises of multinational chocolate companies viz. Mondelez (owns Cadbury), Mars, Nestle and The Hershey Company.
  • February is regarded as Chocolate's Month. The markets are found swarming with varieties of mouth-watering chocolates.
  • Child labour and human trafficking are the deepest concern involved in cocoa harvest and production.

For all chocolate fantasy lovers, the movie Charlie and Chocolate factory will definitely be a big treat for their hearts.

india map

List of Different States in India

List of Different States in India

India is the largest democratic country in the world. It is in the south of an Asian Continent. It is the seventh largest country by the area and the second most populous country with over 1.2 billion people. The country has a diverse terrain with Himalayas, Oceans, and Desert and has a history dating back to many millenniums. India is the fastest growing economy and has the third largest military. The religions like Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism originated in India. India has a federal Parliamentary system which follows the Constitution of India along with 29 states and 7 union territories. New Delhi is the capital of the country. The Supreme Court is the highest Judiciary in the country. Indian Rupee ( INR )is the currency of the country

All the states and two Union territories of Puducherry and New Delhi have elected legislatures and governments. The other five Union territories are under the direct rule by the Centre through appointed administrators. The State Reorganisation Act, 1956, i.e. Reorganisation of state on linguistic basis. Each State and Union territory is further divided into administrative districts.

india map

The States

Indian states

Indian states


The Union Territory 

Indian Union terrioties

reading quote

Reading and its different techniques

Reading and its different techniques

“Knowledge is wealth”

Reading Quote

The most important skill one should develop in their life is reading. It will offer us lots of information and data about the different topics which in turn can help us become successful in one’s life. Reading different topics help us to understand the things from different perspectives. It is a good exercise for our brain.

The important factor in improving reading is to Read, Read and Read. Unless and until we keep on reading there is no other way to improve your reading. Daily if we invest some amount of time in reading can help us to improve a lot in our life. If we didn’t understand some word, we shouldn’t ignore rather spend a little time in understanding it by referring the dictionary. Daily we should learn one new word and try to apply it in our conversation, writing or wherever it is possible.

It is better to create a reading habit for the children from the beginning itself, which would make them a better person. Parents can read them bedtime stories and try to encourage them to read on their own. The very first thing about the reading we should understand the basics. Ability to classify the alphabets, words, sentences and paragraphs gives a foundation for reading. Once we are through with the basics, we could start reading the easy books from the topics which interest us. This can help us to start reading as a passionate reader by regular reading habit.

Different techniques are:

  • Skimming: In this type, we will get the gist on the topic we read. This type of reading could be with the newspapers or some brochure to get the overall understanding.
  • Scanning: In this type, the reader could just scan through it to see whether it contains the information, they are looking for. The best example for this kind of reading is the telephone directory.
  • Intensive: For this type, the reader would have a topic in mind which he searches. He has full concentration while reading by checking each and every fact very closely related to the topic.
  • Extensive: Here the reader will be engaged in reading for his pleasure. The books like novels, magazines could be kept under this category

Reading is the key to learning

The given below are some ways to improve:

  • Learn a new word each day: Daily learning new, unfamiliar word and understanding the meaning as well as their usage the sentence.
  • Start reading easy books: When we start reading it’s better to choose an easy book with the topics which interests us.
  • Read different genre material: It’s  better not to stick to any particular type of books or topic. Always try different genre material; it would help us to understand different writing styles and vocabulary.
  • Join a library: Visiting a library would help us to find different genre books.
  • Join a book club: A book club would motivate to finish a book, discussing it and understanding it from other’s point of view.

The benefits are:

  • Improve our verbal ability: As we keep up with the reading, the usage of the vocabulary would increase and we would be a better communicator.
  • Better memory and concentration: A person who is a vivid reader would have a high level of memory with a good focus and concentration.
  • Imagination: Another important thing about reading is the imagination. The imagination level would increase because when we read something we imagine it in our mind, which in turn would help us to increase our imagination.
  • Smarter: Reading makes us smarter. Books are the greatest source of information.
  • Person of interest: It would give us an upper hand in the group because we would able to give our viewpoint on the particular topic discussed.
  • Reduce stress:  Reading a book could reduce our stress because it would make us forget about our worries.
  • To know your inner self: Reading would actually give us a sense of understanding about ourselves.
  • Entertainment: The best way to pass our time is to read.

On the whole, we could see that reading is the best habit, one could develop from an early age, which would definitely have a great impact throughout their life.

Interior of the cave, with stalactites and stalagmites and gigantic walls

The Lost Cave – Son Doong

The Lost Cave - Son Doong

We are the part of this mysterious world. Though we are rising towards the high tech world but we are still unknown to many things. We have discovered various ancient civilization remains yet there are much more to explore. One of those is the cave.

In the year, 2009, at Quang Binh Province, the border of Laos and Vietnam, one of the largest massive lost caves was explored to the world. The name was given as Hang Son Doong or Son Doong Cave depicting “Mountain River in a Cave”.

The discovery of this huge cave was never an actual discovery rather was sudden thoughtless exploration. The story behind the discovery is very interesting. Once a local farmer, Ho Khahn was walking through the wide forest within Phong Nha Bang National park in the province. During such wandering, the forest surface crumbled, the farmer managed to rescue from falling into the deep opening. Thus he could see that within the cavernous mouth vested hidden forest belt. It was sheer luck that the farmer discovered the Lost Cave within the heart of the National Park. It marked absolutely path paved for those daring explorers to find the interiors. This mouthed area was the entrance to the wonder. The initial thoughtless discovery of the cave was done in 1991.

There seemed to be not much of exploration for some years. The roaring sounds and creepy darkness beneath the gaping earth had sent shivers of superstitions among the locals. They seemed to be scared to explore the area further. Thus these prolonged rumors had invited the British Cave research Associations to prepare a journey to this entrance into the mysterious beneath. Thus in the year 2009, members of the association had come with undaunted decision to unfold the mystery.


Finally, a team led by Howard and Deb Limbert in the year initiated the research by descending in the drop. Using trekking equipment like ropes, harnesses, headlamps, they rappelled into the deep cavern. It was eerie silence within and further research claimed that cave was solutionized type i.e. evolved from limestone. The depth of the drop is 260 ft. On further passing through, they came across a 200ft huge calcite wall which they named as “The Great Wall of Vietnam”. This wall did not turn off the adventure further; the bold trekkers paced ahead and revealed the secret of the cavern. According to their research, the cave stretches for 5km, around 650ft wide and has a height of 200ft, which could have fit 40 to 50 storeyed building. The floor and the roof have huge sized stalactites and stalagmites. They found a river which rambled through the entire stretch of the cave. The sound of the river was echoing in the grotto thereby creating uncanny feeling throughout.

Interior of the cave, with stalactites and stalagmites and gigantic walls

Interior of the cave, with stalactites and stalagmites and gigantic walls

The most surprising were the biodiversity which is inside the cave. There is a forest hidden within it. It contains a heavy large stretch of foliage which is a home of unknown species of birds, insects, bats, flying foxes, butterflies, monkeys and much more. Even the trees seem to grow for 100ft displaying that the cave has definitely preserved the ancient diversity of life. The team was hugely under the awe that it was absolutely unbelievable to reveal this hidden past. On further discovery, they found that most of the creatures which thrived within the cave like rare species of fishes, insects and millipedes, suffered from albino and were without sight.

Thick forest glimpse from the interiors of the cave

Thick forest glimpse from the interiors of the cave

Meandering through the river enclosed in the heart of the cavern, they found many prehistoric remains in the form of fossils, claims to be huge and vast in size. It would definitely help the archaeological department to dig in further to disclose the mystery.  The forest also seemed to have separate climate system which provides a unique ability for the unknown species to sustain and grow. It has clouds that rise up which is an absolutely incredible sight. The team said that when the dusk had fallen, they could hear weird sounds which had been terrific experience as well.

Rappelling Adventurers into Son Doong

Rappelling Adventurers into Son Doong

This Lost prehistoric Cave has given a wonderful opportunity for the adventure lovers. The tour company, Oxalis offers expedition to Son Doong Cave for those daring hearts. The unending mystery though explored but yet unexplored. There are much more to be discovered. This cave is one of the sudden discoveries so we can certainly imagine how many would be there in the world which is yet to be unfolded.

Let’s rekindle the hope to explore the world of the millions of years old, within the world, seemingly looking like the fiction movies i.e. Jurassic Park etc.


electronic waste logo

Electronic Pollution Or e-waste

Electronic Pollution or e-waste

It is a big question that where do the electronic things go after it is dead!!!!!!

We all must have heard about air pollution, water pollution, soil pollution and noise pollution but Electronic pollution is the new upcoming pollution which has been increasing terrifically with each passing day.

electronic waste logo

What are e-waste?

Electronic waste is also called as e-waste. It is hoarding as well as disposing of unused or irreparable, electronic items like mobile phones, television sets, computer sets, refrigerator, tape recorders etc. It includes a long unending list of electrical equipment. These may be classified into 3 parts. Recycled, Non-recycled and Risky

Heaps of electronic waste

Heaps of electronic waste

Composition of e-waste

With technology advancement surplus in demand and surplus in supply leads to excessive wastage of products. With the release of new technology every year, people tend to adapt to a newer one rather old product. Thus it tends to another of clearance.

Sometimes we could find that people discard old electronics at the least inconvenience and prefer new ones. It is not being lousy but we find certain cases like buying the new printer is much cheaper than its ink cartridges. The distribution of price pushes people to buy new products.

The high cost of repairing the product also tends to more of displacing the old with the new one at a cheaper rate.

The waste could be managed by three methods; Reuse, Repair or Resale. But still, there would be a big question “Would it be entirely applicable for all electronic entities?”

Toxic and Hazardous

Most of the discarded products are set into open fire, which melts and releases harmful elements to the atmosphere. Carcinogens and neurotoxins when released into the air pollute and create smog which is very obnoxious.

Table showing the side effects of electronic waste

Methods to Reduce the e-waste

According to the world, a survey claims only 20% of the wastes are recycled and the rest are dumped. It estimates that 50 million metric tons of electronic wastes are produced each year.

The recent study declares that most of the dumping yards of the electronic waste are in the developing countries like India, China and some parts of Africa. Thus we can find out how much of Toxicity has been transfused in such nations.

Moreover, there is a huge global trade of used electronic elements. Those in support of such trade claim that recycling of elements like copper, gold and silver could be done from these e-waste than going of environmental mining activities. Repairing of old computers and electrical things claims to be quoted as “the Lost Art”

Certain parts of electronic systems have copper, lead, gold, aluminum, iron etc which could be reused or refurbished as per the demand. Reusing and refurbishing reduce major chunk of environmental damage.

Another conventional method is by Disposing of safely. e-waste are processed in four different ways; Melting circuit boards; igniting the cable cover for separating the copper; using series of chemical reaction to extract the metals; Cryogen application on printed boards.

Smelting is another process of recycling base metals as well as other metals present in the electronic items are extracted and reused.  Metals like copper, lead, silver, gold, iron, palladium etc are generally extracted in smelters.

Recent News

Map of electronic waste

  • According to the survey reports, in the US, about $ 400 billion are spent on consumer electronics but only 30% are recycled e-waste. The disturbing numbers are just put us in a dilemma that what are the outcomes of rest 70%. Unfortunately, they are actually in the dump yard.
  • The biggest and the alarming issue is that India marks the second largest consumer market for mobile phones but it is the fifth largest country producing e-waste. Wherein according to the states Mumbai tops, followed by New Delhi, Bangalore and Chennai
  • Recently in Kochi, India, 80 consignments are seized by the customs stating all contained electronic waste which are imported from foreign countries including Germany and England. Now the consignments are kept under a vigil and inspection by the Customs and DGFT (Director General of Foreign Trade).
  • According to the report dated February 17th, 2017, China has topped in heaping the e-waste. There is an urgent need for an organization to cut the waste as much as possible as it could definitely lead to precarious consequences.

News proclaims that we have to take extreme steps to minimize the wastage and try to refurbish or resale the products rather shedding hay ware.

Policies and Organisation Erected


  • The International treaty, Basel Convention, helps to reduce the movements of hazardous waste from one country to the other. It is a Control of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and its Disposal.
  • In the US, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maintains the list of American consumers who donate and recycle electronic products as well as give with tax benefits.
  • In Europe, WEEE (Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment) manages the e-waste by three policies; Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle. By this management, the suppliers and the producers are given the sole responsibility to recycle the electronic products after certain level exhaustion.
  • In order to reduce the disposal, Japan has implemented two laws LPUR (Law for the Promotion and Effective Utilization of Resources) and LRHA (Law of Recycling specified Kind of Home Appliances). It emphasis both manufacturers and the consumers for effectively carry out the recycle.
  • In China, Guiyu is the region for e -waste disposal community. Therefore it is also called the “E-waste capital of the world”. This poor area is totally dependent on reception of the e-waste of the world. It provides huge employment for the locals. But it adversely affects their health and environment as per the reports.
  • In Kochi, India, e-waste management has sorted out a solution where there is safe disposal. The City Corporation has joined with the state-run department agency, Clean Kerala Company Ltd to collect the e-waste and process scientifically. Any electronic items would be collected at the rate of Rs5/- per Kg, by contacting them by mail or telephone within a duration of 7 days. The email address is ewastecampaign@gmail.com

The following link will definitely put us in awe as to how much we are in danger due to electronic waste




Michael Jackson Quote

The King Of Pop – Michael Jackson

The King Of Pop - Michael Jackson

Michael Jackson Quote

The Legend of Pop doesn’t need much of Introduction. He has contributed his soul into the world of music and dance. His inimitable moonwalk dance and anti-gravity lean has been given an ultimate way of individuality in dance. Thereby we all regard him as the KING OF POP.

Even after his demise, the entire world remembers his inevitable dedication towards his all works. We still tune in his music and follow his incomparable dance. Therefore we could say that though he has departed from us but still, in our heart, we believe he is the living legend.

We all should learn that path of fame and success isn’t a shortcut, there are lots of barriers. Similarly, Michael Jackson’s life also had few impediments, which he had confidently confronted.

Michael Jackson is globally regarded as the King of Pop. He was born on August 29th, 1958, at Gary, Indiana (US). He was a renowned American Singer, dancer, lyricist, producer, fashion icon, and prolific actor too.

He was born to African –American Family. His father played a major role in his success as he had to follow strict disciplined life during his childhood. He grew up with his 3 sisters; Rebbie, La Toya and Janet and 5 brothers; Jackie, Tito, Jermaine, Marlon and Randy.

Micheal Jackson and his Siblings

Michael Jackson’s siblings

Career as a Renowned American Artiste

The Jacksons Five was the band formed by his father and five sons.

The First Album of Jackson Five is “Big Boy”(Big Boy) in 1968, the first song was sung by Michael Jackson. We can find his origins of prolific dance techniques since his childhood. They also had another album where Michael Jackson had evolved as a wonderful child performer.

Their four albums were; I want you Back(IWUB);  ABC(ABC ); The Love You Save (The love);  I’ll Be There(Ilbthr

Thus during the period of 1972 to 1975, Michael Jackson had emerged as the solo child artist.

 His debut solo studio album is “Got to Be There (Gtbt). This album marked his start as a solo singer.

The debut of his signature moonwalk dance was evolved during one of his performance, “Billie Jean” on Motown 25: Yesterday, Today and Forever (Moonwalk). Thereafter there were several dignified albums which were highly recognized around the world

His humanitarian works and being a profound philanthropist had earned immense appreciation and notable awards. His famous song; “We are the world (Wrtw) and “Beat it” (Beat it) were used as public awareness and campaigns for public service. These two songs had earned extreme credit in the eyes of each individual of the world.

We also find another side of Michael Jackson where he committed his life to public entertainment and public service. He not only recorded songs and danced for many albums but also performed live concerts in huge numbers.

His enthusiasm in his works accredited many awards. The notable passion and everlasting unique style in his dance moves were recognized in each and every corner of the world.

Micheal Jackson Performance


The world was deeply grieved when The King Of Pop suddenly passed away on June 25, 2009. The news had spread like fire which was unacceptable to many that he is no more with us. The memorial for Michael Jackson was held on July 27th, 2009 at Staples Centre in Los Angeles.

The tomb of Michael Jackson

The tomb of Michael Jackson


His Eminent works

 The Last Photoshoot was the documentary film regarding behind the scenes of Michael Jackson’s Photoshoot of the year 2007. This documentary was released in 2014

Michael Jackson’s sudden death has created an irreparable loss in our lives. His outstanding talent has definitely engraved in our memories.

 Let his soul rest in peace.

 This article is a tribute to the King OF Pop, therefore, we do not want to pick up any controversies or issues regarding him.

Romeo and Juliette

Timeless Eternal Love Stories

Timeless Eternal Love Stories

On this Valentine’s Day, I would share three beautiful love stories of the past for our lovely readers

Romeo and Juliette

Romeo and Juliette

Romeo and Juliette have become the symbol of pure love. It is a tragic story written by the great William Shakespeare.

The long vendetta between the families of Romeo and Juliette i.e. Montague and Capulet families had led to the end of the lovers. Romeo and Juliette fell in love when Romeo had sneaked in the Capulet ball. Both of the families hated each other. Juliette’s Cousin Tybalt caught Romeo while sneaking. This had outraged the situation that Romeo confronts and kills Tybalt. Thereafter he hid in Juliette chamber and consummate their marriage. Capulet had ordered Juliette to marry Count Paris. She had denied the proposal several times but later agrees but plans to fake her death.  Friar Laurence had lent his hand for helping to unite them both. He gives a sleeping potion which would put her to coma for two and half hours. 

Friar Laurence had lent his hand for helping to unite them both. He gives a sleeping potion which would put her into a coma for two and half hours. Friar also promised to send his servant to inform Romeo to rejoin her after she awakens. On the Wedding Eve, Juliette consumes the drug and superficially laid dead. Unfortunately, the messenger couldn’t inform Romeo but the news of Juliette’s death had shattered him. He buys a poison and visits the grave, where he found Paris mourning. In the wrath of anger, Romeo kills Paris and unaware of the plan, consumes poison and lay dead near the grave. When Juliette awakens she finds Romeo dead. She stabs herself with a dagger and kills herself. The untimely death of the young lovers had united their feuding families.

Pyramus and Thisbe

Pyramus and Thisbe

This is another heart emotive story of the tragic death of sacred lovers. This story is the work of Ovid (Roman poet during Augustus’s rule), in his book, Metamorphoses.

Pyramus and Thisbe loved each other but they belonged to parents who were rivals. They resided in Babylon where houses are connected by common walls. They were neighbors and also childhood friends who grew to become lovers. Their parents were against their marriage. Pyramus and Thisbe had silent whispers of their love through the crevices of their wall. Presumably, they had arranged a meeting before sunrise nearby the fields under the mulberry tree near Ninu’s tomb to express their feelings. 

Thisbe had reached the place early and she waited under the tree. She saw a lion who was wandering in search of water to satisfy his thirst. She was stunned to see the jaws which were bloodstained. In a sudden haste of run, she had dropped the veil and hid near the rocks. The lion strolled and grabbed the veil with his bloody jaws. At that juncture, Pyramus also reached the mulberry tree. He saw the horrible sight where the lion had the Thisbe’s veil in his jaws. Mistakenly he assumes that Thisbe is no more. He was extremely disappointed that he pierces his chest with his sword and ends his life. Unknown to the situation Thisbe was hiding still behind the rocks. After some time she comes out and finds her beloved laid dead. Distressed she also kills herself with the same sword. There is a myth that the color of mulberry was turned white to red due to the blood stain that splashed from the wounds of Pyramus.

Mark Antony and Cleopatra

Mark Antony and Cleopatra

Mark Antony and Cleopatra relation is another tragic love story of William Shakespeare. The enduring adoration of the beautiful couple is written in his works.

Mark Antony had gone for a battle against Octavius at sea. Antony had followed Cleopatra leaving his forces at stake in the Battle of Actium. His immense love had faltered his ways thus he was ashamed of his action. Feeling guilty, he accused Cleopatra of making him a coward due to her passionate love. The battle was a terrific failure, they were defeated. Antony was distressed and alleged Cleopatra for wooing him. Cleopatra did not want to lose Antony, therefore, sought a plan to win his heart again. She had sent a message through a messenger to Antony that she had killed her uttering Antony’s name as her last word. She had enclosed herself in the monument and was waiting for Antony to return. Her plan went all in vain. On hearing that Cleopatra is no more, Antony stabs him feeling that his life is no worth to live. On learning that Antony ended his life for the false news, she too committed suicide by consuming poison of asp. It was the true test of love which existed in their relationship.

I would conclude with a quote of Shakespeare “Love looks not with the eyes, but with the mind, and therefore is winged Cupid painted blind

Happy Lovers Day!!!!!