Drones- Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Drone logo

Currently, it is an era of the Drones which is accepted by most of the developed and developing nations across the world. The Drones are the aircraft's which travel without any pilot aboard. Thus they are termed as Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) or Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS). The movement of these drones is controlled by either the remote controls or autonomous methods by intermittently used or by computers involved inside those.

Structure of UAS or UAV

The entire structure of Drone is divided into six major categories

  1. Elementary
  2. Technicalities
  3. Sensors
  4. Varieties
  5. Propulsion
  6. Video

Elementary

  • Drones are the unmanned aerial vehicles used generally for military purpose such as surveying the area and locating a particular area.
  • DIY- Do it yourself. Preparing the drone using one’s own skills
  • UAV- Making any design or category of the unmanned aerial vehicles

Technicalities

  • Size usually mapped between the greatest points between 2 motors on the drone.
  • Centre of Gravity marks an important factor. It ensures that the weight is equally distributed on the every part of the drone.
  • Dampners are used to reduce the vibration on the drone.
  • Frame is the skeletal unit providing the support and protection
  • Landing gear which is used to provide a safe landing without destroying the external hardware
  • Propguards help to maintain the propellers and as well as the user(human operator)
  • Shell is the external stylish and prominent appearance which can build a smooth interface

Sensors

  • Accelerometer is used to determine the linear acceleration
  • Barometer measure the height of the drone with the change in air pressure according to the altitude
  • Gyroscope measures the flight stability of the drone during angular acceleration
  • GPS(Global positioning system) permits the satellites to locate the drone’s position as well as manage the flight of the drone

Varieties

  • RTF (Ready to Fly) contains the RC (Remote Controlled) quadcopter which is well equipped with all its parts and fixtures necessary for the flight.
  • BNF (Bind and Fly) contains RC quadcopter well equipped but without a transmitter.
  • ATF (Almost Ready To Fly) contains drones which are not well assembled so it needs further parts to maintain its flight.
  • Hexacoter contains 6 propellers.
  • Multirotor contains multiple rotors (rotary wings which help to increase the aerodynamic lifting force).
  • Octocopter contains 8 motors.
  • Quadcopter contains 4 propellers.
  • Tricopter contains 3 motors.

Propulsion

  • ESC(Electronic Speed Controller) which coordinates with the motor, battery and the flight controller and regulates the speed of rotating motors
  • Lithium Polymer is the universal battery for the drone thereby it is light in weight
  • Motors help is rotation of the propellers
  • Printed Circuit Board is a flat fiberglass which has various components soldered
  • Power distribution is done by using power distribution board which splits or shares the power supply to the various parts of the components in the drone.
  • Power Adapter maintains the connectivity between the motors and the propeller

Video

  • FPV(First Person View) helps to view the live feeding which is captured by the camera attached to the drone
  • LCD helps to view the image displayed on the screen
  • Gimble provides a space to hold the camera while the drone is on the flight.
  • GoPro is the sports or action camera which is mounted for a clear vision

Application of the drone in various fields

Aerospace: -

          The civil aviation industry uses Drones for inspection and maintenance of the aircraft at an altitude.

 Military: -

      In the military, Drones are named as UCAV(Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle), carries missiles for air combat. Countries like           China, India, Israel, Italy, Pakistan, United States and Turkey own UCAV’s.

drone fire

China owns the largest number of Drones. Recently at Zhuhai 2016 Airshow, China had exhibited their finest drones ever made.       

China possesses Cloud shadow attack drone (carrying mini drones along with it); CH-5(carrying a payload of 1 ton of ammunitions and sensors; CH-805 Stealth Target DroneCK-20 Supersonic Target Drone would be in force by 2020; SW-6 UAV; CH-500 can carry 2 heavy anti-tank missiles.

India imports approximately 28% of UAV’s from foreign countries. India also develops its UAVs from its two centers viz; Defense Research and Development Organisation, New Delhi and Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, Bangalore. The Active UAVs of India are LAKSHYA( is a High-Speed Target Drone); The Searcher Mk I and II (helps in target orientation, surveillance, weapons adjustment etc); HERON (has a fully automated fourth-generation multi-altitude system); NISHANT(capable for target tracking and localization; surveillance); HARPY( also named fire and forget type of drone as it destroys the set target); India’s latest and future UAVs are RUSTOM- 1 serving Indian Army, Indian Air Force and Indian Navy; GAGAN TACTICAL UAV; NAVAL ROTARY UAV ; SOLAR POWERED UAV ; MINI UAV; SLYBIRD;  NETRA.

 Israel possesses one of the world’s largest numbers of drones. IAI (Israel Aerospace Industries Ltd) manufacture UAVs Malat; Scout; Searcher I and II; Heron; Hunter; Pioneer; Harpy; Ranger. ELBIT(International Defense and Electronics Company) manufactured UAVs Hermes 180; Hermes450; Hermes 900; Hermes 1500; Skylark1 and 2; Aeronautics of Israel manufactured UAVs Aerolight; Aerosky; Aerostar; Dominator; Orbiter; Tail Sitter. EMIT of Israel has manufactured Blue Horizon 2; Sparrow; Butterfly; Dragonfly 2000. Rafael has manufactured Skylite A and B. Top I Vision has created Casper 50

Italy contains Predator and Reaper drones which have an ability to carry weapons along with it. In addition to these Italy also has the best MIRACH series and SELEX series of UAVs which is efficient in reconnaissance and target localization.

 Pakistan is also regarded as one of the major countries of the world which are well equipped with armed as well as unarmed drones. NESCOM(National Engineering and Scientific Commission), Pakistan Aeronautical Complex, GIDS, SATUMA are the companies which manufacture UAVs in Pakistan. UAVs like BURRAQ; SATUMA series; SAAB(from Sweden); SHANXI are the active drones in Pakistan

The United States contains the largest number of drones. The most efficient and prominent UCAVs are RQ-11 RAVENS; AEROVIRONMENT WASP IIIs; AEROVIRONMENT RQ-20 PUMAS; RQ-16 T HAWK; PREDATORS; MQ 1C GREY EAGLES; MQ-9 REAPERS; RQ-7 SHADOWS; RQ-4 GLOBAL HAWK which are predominantly perform surveillance, aerial target localization, artillery equipping , aerial attack, combat research and rescue operations. The terrorist Osama Bin Laden was killed by the help of US UAV Predator which had identified the exact location of his hideout.

Turkey has imported several UAV’s from other countries. The manufacturing of the specified UAV’s are done by Turkish Aerospace Industries. TAI Anka has a good number of UAVs. ANKA –B, ANKA-TP, and ANKA-S are its products.

 Demining

Drones help in identification of specified area for mining as well as distinctively detect and images the area for land mines. The specified imaging technology proves a helping hand for those detections.

Civil

There are various drones which are specifically used to aerial survey for specified purpose like illegal land encroachment, inspecting power lines and communication hubs; the line of control borders; mapping certain areas; pollution assessment; anti-poaching etc. .

Hobby

Drones are the future of the current generation where people use it for their own recreational use; photography, filming, as well as used aerial videography for various celebrations

Disaster Management

These drones prove to be excellent surveyor when any catastrophe is affecting any particular zone. They map they area provide specifications; aerial reports; rescue management; providing the people at the affected areas with basic necessities by aerial dropping.

Agriculture

UAVs are deployed to spray fertilizers and inspecting farmland when the areas are mapped in hectares. Thus drones help the farmers immensely when they are in a wide stretch of land.

Drone collage

Specified regulatory laws are enforced for using drones in the respective countries whether it is recreational or professional. Thus each and every operator, are forced to follow the rules of their own countries in which they reside.

 

 

 

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