Raging Waves and Roaring Storms
Approximately 71% of the earth is water and rest 29% is land. The deep and vast oceans shroud the earth. With the slightest change in weather would turn the calm waters to catastrophe. According to the oceanographers, there are various types of storms whirling in the oceans. Those extreme storms in Indian Oceans and South of Pacific Ocean are called CYCLONES. TYPHOONS are the storms formed in North Western part of Pacific Ocean. HURRICANES are the storms formed in the Atlantic Ocean as well as Eastern Pacific Ocean.
Generally, a cyclonic storm is produced due to the low pressure formed in the Indian Ocean and south of Pacific Ocean. Eye of the storm or the center of the storm contains the lowest pressure. The difference in the distribution of the pressure creates the whirling effect of the force. There are 2 major forces which tend to form the cyclone.
1)Coriolis Effect: It is a force produced due to inertia which acts on the object whose motion is at a relative to the rotatory frame. It means the force acts on the left of the object if the motion is clockwise and it acts on the right if the motion is anticlockwise. Thereby in cyclones, the variance in pressure creates an effect wherein the gusts of wind move in the clockwise direction in Northern Hemisphere and anticlockwise in Southern Hemisphere.
2)Pressure Gradient Force: The deficit of high and low pressure creates this force. Therefore near to the center of the cyclonic pathway i.e. eye, the pressure gradient force acts due to the difference in the pressure level.
Usually, tropical cyclones have low-intensity atmospheric pressure with growing air along with vortex of the converging winds. Thus they carry rain-bearing clouds.
The following are the lists of Cyclones which occurred in the Indian Ocean and South Pacific Ocean.
In May 2016, the Cyclonic storm Roanu had affected the states Andhra Pradesh and Odisha of India and even created a landslide in Bangladesh which had emerged from North Indian Ocean. During December 2016, another cyclone named Cyclone Vardah also had emerged from North Indian Ocean which was an extremely severe storm that had almost covered Southern part of India, Thailand, Indonesia, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Malaysia.
The previous year, in July 2016, Cyclone Abela and Cyclone Bransby had evolved from the South-West Indian Ocean. In this year 2nd March 2017, intense tropical Cyclone Enawo had struck Madagascar.
The Warming up of the Pacific Waters i.e. EL Nino had created lots of cyclonic effects in the South Pacific Ocean. The severe impact of the storm had covered the Pacific islands, Africa, South East of Asia and Central America
The storm appears in the Northwestern part of the Pacific Ocean. Such storm engulfs with immense effect around the Northwestern Pacific Basin.
The Warming of sea surface temperature; undulation in the stability of Temperature; peak in troposphere humidity; Low pressure at the center due to Coriolis force; Vertical Wind Gradient are the main causes of the Typhoon.
The following are the list of worst affected Typhoons till this date.
Typhoon Haiyan was the most terrific and most intense typhoon ever affected the Philippines in November 2013, killing about 7000 people. The previous year, 2012, Philippines had to experience the wrath of the storm, Typhoon Bopha causing a huge destruction of the island.
The hurricane is another form of tropical cyclone usually found in the Atlantic Ocean. Storms develop when there is a difference in air temperature from one region to another region. Warm air thereby rises and the cool air descends. Therefore this creates a pressure difference.
Saffir=Simpson Hurricane scale measures the intensity of storms on the basis of the speed of the wind. The scale has categorized the Hurricane into five. The category one is mildest of hurricanes having wind speed 120-150km/hr. The category two is the hurricane of wind speed of close to 180km/hr. The wind speed between 180km/hr and 250km/hr comes under category three and category four. The wind speed more than 250km/hr is the most dangerous and named as category five.
The following are the List of Hurricanes which affected till this date
Hurricane Katrina in the year 2005, was the most intense storm which changed its wind speed very quickly i.e. from category 3 to category 5. It whirled around the Bahamas initially later headed towards the Gulf of Mexico affecting in a larger and powerful scale.
Hurricane Irene in the year 2011, was another destructive storm which affected the Caribbean and the Eastern Coast of United States. This storm initiated in category one later spat its fury after a landfall into category 3.
The Great Hurricane of 1780 was the most devastated and deadliest hurricane ever recorded to date. It had struck the Barbados, Lesser Antilles with a wind speed more than 320km/hr. Thus there was a huge death toll which counted to approximately 22000 people.
Need To Know!!!
** Scientists say that most of the storms evolve due to drastic increase global warming. Thus the speed of the wind also tends to increase thereby drop in pressure causes the after effect in the form of a storm. Scientists also say that every year wind speed increases by 2%. This increase is terribly devastating.
**Naming of Storms: mid-1900s- Before 1900 the storms were given names of men. Lamid-1900s, they introduced female names. Thereafter the meteorologist decided to have specified and organized the way of naming the storm. The names of the storm in particular season begins with A. The second storm name will begin with B and so on. The names allotted in a particular season would not be repeated for six years.
In the following table, we find the List of Tropical Cyclone Names. The List of names suggested in 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 repeats after six years i.e. 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 respectively. The list of 2012 and 2013 would be repeated in 2018, 2019 respectively.