Automatic Account determination due to Sales Activity
SAP SD–FI integration
What is SAP SD–FI integration?
Determination of right G/L posting scheme in SAP at the time of sales activity. There are two types of billing process based on customer sales.
- O2C Cycle (Order to Cash)
- POS transaction.
- O2C Cycle:
It starts with Sales order -- > Delivery -- > Post good issue --- > Billing document.
At the time of Post goods issue, the inventory account will get credited, and cost of goods sold will get debited. This will get determine by SAP MM – FI Integration. Link for SAP MM-FI integration is given below.
Once the Goods issue is completed, the next step is to capture the customer billing and ensure the values are getting into right finance books. The sales may be to outside customer or intercompany.
- POS transaction:
In retail system, the sales are happening in POS system and integrate to SAP system. When the sales are integrating to SAP, it will generate two documents in SAP. One is for the goods movement document (251 movement type), the account determination is happened through SAP MM-FI integration. Link shared above. The billing document get posted to capture the retail sales in SAP. Here also we need to ensure right G/L is determined to capture the sales.
To determine the auto account posting in the above two process, it is mandatory to have Automatic Account determination procedure in billing.
In this article will go through the important steps and configuration methods.
Automatic Account determination is done through T code – VKOA. Before proceeding to assign G/L accounts, we must complete some prerequisites in below SPRO path.
SPRO à SD à Basic Function à Account Assignment/ Costing à Revenue Account Determination
SPRO PATH Screenshot:
Check Master for Account Assignment:
In this step we need to define the Account assignment groups for both customer and material/article master.
Material Master Accounting group:
Materials are grouped based on their nature (Eg: Trading goods, Finished goods etc). SAP will have predefined Account assignment group; consultant can create new entry based on business requirement. It’s a two-digit key. The account assignment group is maintained in sales tab in Material master. During sales transaction, the same will be captured in billing document items.
Customer Master Accounting group:
Customer grouping is done in this step grouping of customers, tax agent etc. Consultants can create new entries based on the business requirement. The customer accounting group is maintained in customer master sales area screen under billing tab. The same will reflect in billing document when the sales transaction is posted.
Dependencies of Revenue Account determination:
In this configuration path, we have to define the key combinations to determine the G/L during sales postings. We call it as Account determination table. SAP has provided the predefined tables to map the combinations. We can create new tables (Starting with 9 series) based on business requirement. New fields can be added in the catalogue to include in account determination table. Also we can define our selection criteria and display fields for the account determination. The data are stored in table C001, C002, C9XX etc).
Define Access Sequence and Account determination:
In this step, we need to define the access sequence to be followed during account determination. SAP has provided few access sequence by default eg: KOFI - Account determination w/o COPA & KOFR - Acc. Det./POS - Rack Jobbing, KOFK – Account Determination with CO. We can define our own access sequence also. In the access sequence we have to provide the hierarchy list on what sequential order the system should follow during account determination. We can modify the existing access sequence based on business need.
Then the access sequence needs to Account determination condition type.
Define and Assign Account determination procedure:
In this step, we have to define account determination procedure. It is different from Pricing procedure. Pricing procedure helps to determine the calculation schema in Order or in billing. Account determination used to determine the G/L accounts at the time of billing document posting.
Create new account procedure or use the existing one for pricing procedure given by SAP. In that we must define the counter and assign the condition type created in previous step.
Then assign the billing document to the account determination procedure.
Define and Assign Account Keys:
In this step, we have to define the account key and map the account key against the pricing procedure. For eg, Account key ERL is used to capture the sales revenue, ERS is used to capture discount & MWS used to capture the Tax. You can define your own key based on business requirement. The same will be assigned to Pricing procedure and Pricing condition type configuration.
When the transaction is posted, system will do pricing calculation based on order type or billing type and the pricing procedure assigned to it. The account determination will happen based on the account key mapped to the Pricing condition type in pricing procedure.
This step seems little confusing in theory, when you are doing in real time you can figure out the difference between pricing condition type and account determination condition type.
Assign G/L Accounts:
This is the last step in G/L account determination. Now we have the following set of parameters in our hand,
- Account assignment group for material and customer master.
- Account determination access sequence and assignment to condition type.
- Account determination procedure and its corresponding billing type.
- Account Key mapped to Pricing procedure.
For illustration we will take the SAP provided one. The T code to assign G/L account screen is VKOA. Let’s assume the access sequence are defined in the following order from 001 to 005.
Whenever the transaction posted, system will read the G/L determination in below sequence based on the account determination procedure. If the G/L is determined in 001 it will not proceed further to 002 etc, if the G/L is not determined in 001 it will check on 002. Similar to pricing determination in pricing procedure.
In condition table 001 we have to define 9 key fields to define the G/L determination.
- Account determination Condition type
- Chart of account
- Sales Org
- Customer account assignment group
- Material Master assignment group
- Account Key
- G/L account
- Provisional account.
It is always V for sales and distribution. In German language sales is represent as Vertrib. That’s the reason all sales related transaction with VXXX.
Account Determination condition type:
KOFI for account determination without COPA and KOFK for account determination with CO. Exact difference between with CO and without CO I am not aware. Financial consultant may help on this.
Chart of account:
Chart of account is assigned to your company code.
Sales organisation represents your organisation structure where the sales is happening.
Customer account assignment group:
Customer assignment group is maintained in customer master under the corresponding sales organisation. The same will be copied to your billing document in header tab.
Material account assignment group:
Material account assignment group is maintained in material master under sales area tab. The same will be copied in to billing document in Item tab.
Account keys are maintained in Pricing procedure. When the billing document created, system will capture the sales or discount or tax amount to the corresponding account key.
The G/L accounts will be given by finance business users or finance consultant will help to get the right G/L account from business users.
This is only applicable when the conditions are subject to accrual posting (eg. Rebate). For example, in Automobile or Pharma industry, rebate will be given to dealer based on the volume of sales performed. The rebate will be on monthly or quarterly or half yearly or yearly basis. The provision account is used to calculate the rebate amount.
Below is the table view of Account mapping in C001 table.