The Blooming Industry- Flower Industry
Flower farming is a type of horticulture, which involves ornamental and flowering plants are cultivated. This gives a major venture in Flower Industry for sustaining the growth appropriate procedure and corrective measures like plant breeding; watering and sowing; soil management; land allocation; adequate nutrition; irrigation according to the seasonal changes are taken.
Type of flowers used for trade
The growers usually prefer all season crop. Lilies, cosmos, zinnias, snapdragons and daisies are few who are in great demand in the market.
Cut-flowers are another type which is prevalent in global trade. The estimated growth in developed and developing countries for cut flowers is $100billion a year. The flowers which are major involved are marigold, roses, hydrangea, tulip, gladiolus, sunflower, daffodil, zinnia etc.
The flower industry is the only industry which in high demand in the developed and developing countries. This industry has had a tremendous start since the 19th century. The specific countries which are involved the world global trades are the major consumers and traders as well. This industry comprises of three major constituents; Growers; Wholesalers and Retailers. The major trade occurs in developed countries like Japan, Western Europe, Netherlands as well as North America.
Netherlands is the major exporter and importer of cut flowers in Europe
The largest producer of cut-flowers providing a wider area for crop production is India, China and United States.
The percentage of consumer markets in the countries are as follows
Germany- 22%, United States-15%, France-10%, United Kingdom-10%, Netherland-9%, Japan-6%, Italy-5%, Switzerland-5%
In the Netherlands, this industry plays a vital role in the foreign exchange for investment for a trade. It provides employment opportunities for the improvement of livelihood.
In Kenya, the income from the flower industry provides the vital income of people. Thereby it is the second largest country for foreign investment earner. The flower industry deploys female workforce who are underprivileged, illiterate and weak workers.
In Western Australia, has a noteworthy nursery industry wherein they are involved in the local market as well as export market. Major parts of the land involved in the production are land rehabilitated after mining and farms of local and state government.
Insects damaging Cut flower crops
Insects cause the various types of damage to these crops. Insects damaging by chewing are the caterpillar, flies (maggots), midges, beetles. Insects those damages by piercing-sucking are leaf hoppers, thrips, aphids, plant bugs, and mites. Mining insects are leaf miners.
Diseases affecting the crop
Botrytis Blight of Cut flowers
The fungus Botrytis cinerea, often referred as gray mold, attacks the plant at any stage whether it is at tender growth or dead or aging tissues. The suitable environment for the fungal attack is several days of cool, cloudy or rainy weather.
Foliar nematodes; Aphelenchoides fragariae; also known as leaf and bud nematodes, attacks over crops like Begonia, Hydrangea, Dahlia, etc. They feed on the foliage damaging the aesthetic look. They usually thrive in humid climates.
Daylilies are infected by a pathogen viz. Puccinia hemerocallidis which reflect a rust-like appearance on the upper and lower surface of a leaf. It spreads from one plant to another by the wind, air, and human touch.
Leaf Spot disease of Ornamental plants
The Leaf spot diseases are caused by fungi and bacteria. Fungus involved is Alternaria, Cercospora, etc and bacterial leaf spots caused by Pseudomonas, Xantomonas etc. The ornamental plants affected by these are Dahlia, Hibiscus, Gerbera, Begonia, Verbena, etc.
Preventive Measures Taken
- Leaf spot diseases can be controlled by decreasing overhead irrigation, lessening the leaf wetting, using pathogen free material, resistant cultivars, preventative fungicide application.
- Sanitation is the most important measure to be taken. Removing and destroying the rust affected plants would be much more effective.
- Keeping the foliage dry and reducing the humidity would sort most of the pathogen infections.
Floral Industry in India
There are three Important Aspects of Floriculture in India
- Trade and commerce, i.e. Economic
- Artistic and Alluring i.e. Aesthetic
- Community and Public i.e. Social
Trade and commerce, i.e. Economic aspect
- Floriculture is a highly progressive market, which has a deep impact in developing country like India
- The gestation period of flower crop is much less when compared to other crops
- Highly valued cut flowers in India are Rose, Gladiolus, Gerbera, Orchids, Tuberose, Anthurium, Carnation etc.
- In the southern part of India, loose flowers like Jasmine, Chrysanthemum, Aster, Marigold, etc. are in huge demand in the markets.
- The major flower cultivated areas are Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, and Andhra Pradesh in South, West Bengal in East, Maharashtra in West and Rajasthan Delhi and Haryana in North.
- The field of floriculture provides ample employment to the unprivileged and underprivileged group, thereby providing an income to the families.
- Apart from farming, it also helps in the deployment of various other career opportunity sectors in floriculture like farm manager, supervisor, project coordinator, research and teaching, floral designers, landscape designers, architect, floral therapist and various other self-potential fields.
Artistic and Alluring i.e. Aesthetic aspect
- This field of floriculture helps for landscape designing as well as giving a lucrative business for the economy.
- Ikebana, Japanese form of arrangement of flowers. It is said that the arrangement provides absolute silence and giving a sort of life by arranging them. This aspect is being followed in in India in various forms like a garden, or open space for a polluted free environment.
- Horticulture therapy wherein there is a treatment for psychic debility by enjoying or utilizing the garden, landscape, etc to pacify or subdue the illness.
- Bio-aesthetic horticulture is the upcoming field where it emerges as a healing tool for connecting human and surroundings. Thus we would find in the slower culture in a landscape in psychiatric hospitals, rehabilitation centers, old-age homes, prisons and schools.
Community and Public i.e. Social aspect
- A flower is regarded as a symbol of purity, beauty, peace, love, passion etc.
- India is a land of festivals, wherein flowers play a significant role in every customs in the form of garland, bouquet, flower arrangements in various functions, wreathes etc.
- Thereby Floriculture plays a crucial role in Indian Market.
Agriculture and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA) helps in promoting and exporting floriculture in India