The History of Java
Java is one of the most important programming languages. James Gosling, Mike Sheridan, Patrick Naughton, who was working in the Sun Microsystems, had started the Java Project in 1991 for the consumer electronics devices. It was named as OAK after an oak tree that stood outside their office. Later the name was changed to Green and finally in 1995 to JAVA, from Java Coffee. The language derives some of its characters from C and C++. On 20th April 2009, Sun Microsystem and Oracle announced the agreement under which Oracle would acquire the Sun but the acquisition was completed by the 27th January 2010.
Java is an Object Oriented language. Java source file with the extension of .java is compiled to a bytecode format with .class as file extension, which is executable in Java interpreter.
Java when once written can be executed on any platform so it says, ”Write once, run anywhere”(WORA) i.e, compiled bytecode can run on any platform which supports Java without any recompilation, it is because the compiled bytecode, Java runs on a Java Virtual Machine (JVM) regardless of computer architecture.
The team had build Java using the following five principles:
- Simple, object-oriented and familiar
- Robust and secure
- Architecture-neutral and portable
- It must execute with high performance
- Interpreted, threaded and dynamic
Different Versions of Java
- JDK version 1.0 released on 23rd January 1996 with the Codename OAK
- JDK version 1.1 released on 19th February 1997 with the Codename Abigail
From 1.2 version onwards JDK is renamed to J2SE (Java 2 platform, Standard Edition)
- J2SE version 1.2 released on 8th December 1998 with the Codename Playground
- J2SE version 1.3 released on 8th May 2000 with the Codename Kestrel
- J2SE version 1.4 released on 6th February 2002 with the Codename Merlin
- J2SE version 5.0 released on 30th September 2004 with the Codename Tiger
The number was changed to reflect the level of maturity, stability, scalability and security of J2SE and it was developed under JSR 176, but the internal version number remains 1.5
- Java SE6 released on 11th December 2006 with the Codename Mustang
The version was again renamed from J2SE to Java SE and also dropped .0 . It was developed under JSR 270, but the internal version number remains as 1.6.0
- Java SE7 released on 7th July 2011 with the Codename Dolphin
- Java SE8 released on 18th March 2014
The code name was dropped from Java 8 onwards
- Java SE9 is scheduled to release on July 2017
Different Editions Of Java
Java Platform, Standard Edition/Java SE: It is used for the development and deployment of code for desktop and servers.
Java Platform, Enterprise Edition/Java EE: It is used for computing of enterprise software.
Java Platform, Micro Edition: It’s used for mobile devices.
Java Card: It’s application (applets) that runs securely on smart cards like SIM, ATM cards.
JavaFX: It’s a software which is used to create desktop applications, as well as a Rich Internet Application (RIA) which can run on a wide variety of devices.
Java is also used in a number of places like a standalone application, web application, enterprise, mobile, smart cards, games, embedded system, robotics etc.